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According to the EU’s Digital Decade Country Report 2023, Luxembourg is excelling in multiple key areas. Luxembourg ranks second in the EU for the number of ICT specialists in total employment and seventh for the percentage of the population with basic digital skills, at 64%, well above the EU average of 54%. This demonstrates the country’s strong focus on developing a digitally skilled workforce. The country is a top performer in digital infrastructure, with 93% coverage for both Fixed Very High-Capacity Networks (VHCN) and 5G, compared to the EU averages of 73% and 81%. This positions Luxembourg as a leader in providing high-speed connectivity. Luxembourg ranks highly in digital public services, scoring 95 out of 100 for services to citizens and 97 for services to businesses, reflecting its success in making public services more accessible and efficient through digital means. While there is room for improvement in cloud service adoption and e-commerce, Luxembourg excels in electronic information sharing, social media usage, big data analysis, and AI implementation among businesses. Initiatives like the European Space Resources Innovation Centre’s start-up Support Programme (ESRIC SSP) support these efforts.

Internet governance

Luxembourg, a small yet influential country in the heart of Europe, has developed a robust framework for internet governance, reflecting its commitment to fostering a secure, innovative, and inclusive digital environment. Here are some unique aspects of Luxembourg’s approach to internet governance:

Strategic Vision and Policy Framework

Luxembourg has a forward-thinking digital strategy that integrates internet governance within its broader economic and social development plans. The ‘Digital Luxembourg’ initiative is a cornerstone, emphasising innovation, cybersecurity, and digital inclusion. This holistic approach ensures that internet governance is not only about regulation but also about enabling digital transformation across various sectors.

Data Privacy and Security

Luxembourg places a high priority on data privacy and security, aligning with stringent European Union regulations like the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The country hosts numerous data centers, including those of international financial institutions, due to its reputation for robust data protection laws and secure infrastructure. Luxembourg’s regulatory framework is designed to protect users’ data rights while fostering trust in digital services.

Multistakeholder Approach

Luxembourg actively promotes a multistakeholder model of internet governance, engaging various actors such as government bodies, private sector companies, civil society, and academic institutions. This inclusive approach ensures that diverse perspectives are considered in the decision-making process, fostering a more balanced and representative internet governance structure.

Innovation and Technology Hub

Luxembourg is recognised as an innovation and technology hub, attracting startups and tech companies from around the world. The government supports digital innovation through various funding schemes, incubators, and accelerators. This focus on innovation is reflected in its internet governance policies, which aim to create a conducive environment for technological advancements while maintaining regulatory oversight.

International Collaboration

Luxembourg actively participates in international forums and collaborates with other countries and organisations on internet governance issues. It is a member of several international bodies, including the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) and the European Dialogue on Internet Governance (EuroDIG). Through these platforms, Luxembourg contributes to shaping global internet policies and standards.

Digital Inclusion and Literacy

Luxembourg emphasises digital inclusion and literacy, ensuring that all citizens have access to digital technologies and the skills needed to use them effectively. Initiatives such as “Digital Inclusion Luxembourg” focus on bridging the digital divide, providing training and resources to underserved communities. This commitment to digital inclusion is a key aspect of Luxembourg’s internet governance strategy.

Digital strategies

Luxembourg’s digital strategies are a comprehensive and evolving framework designed to enhance the country’s digital infrastructure, skills, and innovation capabilities. Luxembourg’s digital strategies represent a well-rounded approach to embracing digital transformation, focusing on infrastructure, skills, innovation, and regulatory excellence. For further details, you can explore the official Digital Luxembourg website and the Government of Luxembourg’s Digital Decade dossier.

Digital Luxembourg Initiative

Launched in 2014, the Digital Luxembourg initiative aims to strengthen the country’s digitalization through three main missions: enabling new projects, supporting existing initiatives, and disseminating information on tech developments. The initiative focuses on developing digital skills, improving the digital ecosystem, enhancing infrastructure, and formulating robust data policies. This collaboration-based approach involves over 60 stakeholders from the public and private sectors.

Digital Luxembourg transitioned to ‘Innovative Initiatives‘ to reflect a shift in priorities and to adapt to Luxembourg’s changing needs. This platform focuses on digital skills, data policy, connectivity, and new technologies. It supports public-private partnerships and government initiatives aimed at driving digital progress and positive transformation​.

Digital Decade Strategic Roadmap

As part of the EU’s broader digital decade strategy, Luxembourg is preparing its national strategic roadmap until 2030. This roadmap involves extensive stakeholder consultation to ensure that both private and public sector needs are met. The strategy emphasises key areas such as digital infrastructure, cybersecurity, and digital skills development to maintain and enhance the country’s competitiveness in the digital economy.

5G Strategy and Digital Skills Development

Luxembourg’s 5G strategy and initiatives to develop digital skills are integral to its digital transformation. The country has launched various projects to enhance digital literacy and re-skill its workforce, ensuring that citizens and businesses can leverage emerging technologies such as AI, robotics, and web development. These efforts are crucial for maintaining a competitive edge in the fast-evolving digital landscape​.

Luxembourg’s Digital Governance Strategy

The country has prioritised the digitalization of its public sector through the ‘Stratégie de Gouvernance Électronique 2021-2025,’ a comprehensive plan by the Ministry of Digitalization. This strategy focuses on enhancing the quality and accessibility of online public services in Luxembourg. It aims to create an inclusive, transparent, and efficient digital government that meets the needs of all citizens and businesses. By fostering a data-driven economy and enhancing public trust in digital services, the strategy seeks to ensure that Luxembourg’s digital governance remains robust and forward-looking.


The cybersecurity landscape in Luxembourg is characterised by a robust and comprehensive approach, reflecting the country’s commitment to maintaining a secure digital environment. This commitment is evident through various initiatives, regulatory frameworks, and strategic collaborations. Here are the key elements of Luxembourg’s cybersecurity landscape:

Luxembourg has established several key initiatives and strategies to enhance its cybersecurity posture. The Cybersecurity Competence Center Luxembourg (C3) serves as a national hub for cybersecurity expertise, offering training, consulting, and certification services to businesses and government entities. Additionally, the National Cybersecurity Strategy (2021-2025) outlines the country’s approach to addressing emerging cyber threats, promoting a secure digital economy, and ensuring the protection of critical infrastructures.

Luxembourg has implemented stringent regulatory measures to safeguard its digital landscape. The National Commission for Data Protection (CNPD) oversees the enforcement of data protection laws, including compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Additionally, the country adheres to the European Union’s Network and Information Systems (NIS) Directive, which mandates rigorous cybersecurity requirements for operators of essential services and digital service providers.

Collaboration between the public and private sectors is a cornerstone of Luxembourg’s cybersecurity strategy. The Luxembourg House of Cybersecurity facilitates cooperation among various stakeholders, including businesses, government agencies, and academic institutions. This collaborative approach helps to share threat intelligence, best practices, and resources to enhance collective cybersecurity resilience.

Luxembourg places a strong emphasis on developing cybersecurity skills and awareness. The Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) and the University of Luxembourg offer specialised programs and research opportunities in cybersecurity. Moreover, initiatives like the Cybersecurity Week Luxembourg provide platforms for industry professionals to network, learn, and stay updated on the latest cybersecurity trends and challenges.

Luxembourg actively participates in international cybersecurity efforts, aligning its policies with global standards and frameworks. The country is a member of various international organisations, including the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE). These affiliations enable Luxembourg to contribute to and benefit from collective cybersecurity initiatives and knowledge-sharing at the international level.

AI strategies and policies

Luxembourg’s AI landscape is characterized by strong government support, a vibrant research community, and a commitment to ethical AI development.

Luxembourg has outlined a national AI strategy aimed at leveraging AI to drive economic growth and improve public services. This strategy focuses on fostering innovation, ensuring ethical AI development, and integrating AI across various sectors. Under the Digital Luxembourg initiative, AI is a critical focus area. This initiative promotes AI adoption through public-private partnerships, funding for research projects, and support for startups specializing in AI technologies.

Research and development play a pivotal role in Luxembourg’s AI landscape. The Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) collaborates with industry partners to develop AI solutions that address real-world challenges, particularly in sectors like finance, healthcare, and logistics​. The University of Luxembourg, through its Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability, and Trust (SnT), conducts cutting-edge research in AI, cybersecurity, and data science, offering specialized programs and fostering innovation​.

Support for startups and innovation is another cornerstone of Luxembourg’s AI ecosystem. Luxinnovation, the national innovation agency, supports AI startups through funding, mentorship, and networking opportunities, helping new ventures navigate the regulatory landscape and connect with potential investors and partners​​. The House of Startups provides resources and support for AI startups, fostering an environment conducive to innovation and growth, offering co-working spaces, accelerator programs, and access to a network of industry experts.

The country actively participates in EU-wide AI initiatives, contributing to the development of a cohesive European AI strategy and engaging in Horizon Europe projects and collaborations with other member states on AI research and innovation. Global partnerships with tech leaders and research institutions ensure that Luxembourg’s AI ecosystem benefits from the latest developments and best practices in the field​.


General profile

Official name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Source: Wikipedia

National internet domain: LU

Source: Wikipedia

Area: 2,586 km2

Source: Wikipedia

Capital: Luxembourg

Source: Wikipedia

Population: 653 thousand

Source: Wikipedia

Population growth: 2

Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Source: World Bank Open Data

Life expectancy at birth: 82.75

Total years (2020year) Source: databank.worldbank.org

Rule of law estimate: 1.79

Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Regulatory quality estimate: 1.84

Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Political stability: 1.21

Political Stability and Absence of Violence / Terrorism: measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Economic info

Currency: Euro

Source: Wikipedia

Unemployment: 5.3

Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP (current US$): 81 billion

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP growth (annual %): 1.4

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP per capita (current US$): 146,457

Source: databank.worldbank.org

Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 6.3

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GNI (current US$): 89 billion

The Gross National Income, GNI, formerly referred to as gross national product (GNP), measures the total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents, at a given period in time, usually a year, expressed in current US dollars using the World Bank Atlas method. GNI comprises GDP plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from non-resident sources. Source: databank.worldbank.org

Ease of doing business score: 69.6

The ease of doing business score benchmarked economies concerning their proximity to the best performance in each area measured by Doing Business for the year 2019. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from0 = lowest performance to 100 = best performance Source: databank.worldbank.org

Digital profile

Internet and social media penetration:

Individuals using the internet: 99.3 (2023)

Individuals using the internet, total (%) Source: www.itu.int

Social media statistics: 307.0 thousand

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Male internet users: 99.4 (2023)

Male internet users as a % of total male population
Source: www.itu.int

Facebook users: 307.0 thousand

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Female internet users: 99.3 (2023)

Female Internet users as a % of total female population
Source: www.itu.int

Instagram users: 274.0 thousand

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Households with internet access at home: 99.1 (2023)

Households with internet access at home (%) Source: www.itu.int

Linkedin users: 380.0 thousand

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Fixed broadband subscriptions: 38.7 (2022)

Total fixed broadband subscriptions (per 100 people) refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s.
Source: www.itu.int

Twitter users: 438.4 thousand

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Mobile infrastructure and access:

Mobile ownership: 92.45

Mobile phone ownership as a % of total population (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Mobile Infrastructure: 81.9

Mobile Infrastructure index: High-performance mobile internet coverage availability. It includes parameters such as network coverage, performance, quality of supporting infrastructure and amount of spectrum assigned to mobile network operators (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Male mobile ownership: 91.1 (2023)

Male mobile phone ownership as a % of total male population
Source: www.itu.int

Mobile Affordability: 86.52

Mobile Affordability index : The availability of mobile services and devices at price points that reflect the level of income across a national population. It includes parameters such as mobile tariffs, headset prices, taxation and inequality (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Female mobile ownership: 90.8 (2023)

Female mobile phone ownership as a % of total female population
Source: www.itu.int

Cybersecurity Index: 97.41

Cybersecurity Index (Estimate for 2021): ITU cybersecurity value
Source: www.itu.int

Network performance: 72.94

Network performance index: Quality of mobile services measured by download speed, upload speed and latencies (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Mobile download speeds: 65.22

Mobile download speeds: Average download speed for mobile users (originally in Mbit/s) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Mobile uploads speeds: 66.04

Mobile uploads speeds: average uploads speed for mobile users (originally in Mbit/s) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Mobile Latencies: 87.58

Mobile Latencies: Average latency for mobile users (originally in milliseconds) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Speedtest-Broadband: 107.30

Speedtest-Broadband: The value is expressed in Mbps (Estimate for 2024)
Source: https://www.speedtest.net/global-index

Network coverage: 92.69

Network coverage (% of total population) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

2G Coverage: 99.0

Coverage % of population
Source: www.itu.int

3G Coverage: 99.2

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

4G Coverage: 99.03

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

5G Coverage: 35.00

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Operating system and browser market share estimate

Operating system market share (%):

Desktop, Tablet & Console Operating System Market Share: Estimate for 2024
Source: https://gs.statcounter.com/

Browser market share (%):

Browser Market Share Worldwide: Estimate for 2024
Source: https://gs.statcounter.com/

Android: 40.77

Chrome: 52.09

Windows: 27.16

Safari: 22.66

iOS: 18.22

Edge: 5.61

OS X: 10.06

Firefox: 8.46

Linux: 1.78

Samsung Internet: 3.80

The UN E-Government Survey 2022:

The UN E-Government Survey is the assessment of the digital government landscape across all UN member states. The E-Government Survey is informed by over two decades of longitudinal research, with a ranking of countries based on the UN E-Government Development Index (EGDI), a combination of primary data (collected and owned by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs) and secondary data from other UN agencies.

E-Government Rank: 26

Nations E-Government Development Index (EGDI), a combination of primary data (collected and owned by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs) and secondary data from other UN agencies. Estimate gives the country's rank.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

E-Government Index: 0.87

The EGDI is a composite measure of three important dimensions of e-government, namely: provision of online services, telecommunication connectivity and human capacity. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

E-Participation Index: 0.75

The E-Participation Index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the United Nations E-Government Survey. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

Online Service Index: 0.83

The online services index was developed by the UN to evaluate the scope and quality of government online services. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-cente

Human Capital Index: 0.82

The Human Capital Index (HCI) quantiï¬_x0081_es the contribution of health and education to the productivity of the next generation of workers. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

Telecommunication Infrastructure Index: 0.95

Telecommunication Infrastructure Index- Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) Composite Indicator that measures the countries' Telecommunication infrastructure readiness to adopt the opportunities offered by Information and Communication Technology as to enhance their competitiveness. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

ICT information:

ICT skills

Information economy indicators

Individuals with basic ICT skills (%): 74.1 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Share of ICT goods, % of total exports (value) 1.68 (2021)

Source: https://unctadstat.unctad.org/

Individuals with standard ICT skills (%): 43.8 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Share of ICT goods, % of total import (value): 3.71 (2021)

Source: https://unctadstat.unctad.org/

Individuals with advanced ICT skills (%): 8.6 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Most visited website: No data

The survey conducted in 2022 excluded global dominant sites (e.g., YouTube, Facebook, and Google) and search engines (e.g., Yahoo, Baidu, DuckDuckGo, Naver, and Yandex) to level the playing field and discount middle-man visits. Likewise, it did not include adult, betting, illegal streaming/downloading services, and malicious websites.
Source: https://www.hostinger.com/tutorials/the-most-visited-website-in-every-country