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Norway boasts one of the world’s most reliable and widespread broadband services. High-speed internet is widely accessible, even in remote areas. This connectivity is a cornerstone of Norway’s digital economy, facilitating everything from e-commerce to remote working. The country is a hub for innovation, particularly in areas such as maritime technologies, energy, and ICT. Oslo, Norway’s capital, is often considered a hotspot for startups, particularly tech startups that benefit from robust government support and access to a highly skilled workforce.

Internet governance

Norway’s approach to internet governance is characterised by a high degree of regulation in favour of privacy and data protection. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), as adopted by Norway through the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement, is a key component of its regulatory framework.

The government’s overall vision is that the internet needs to continue to be an open and free arena where everyone can freely give and receive information and where human rights are protected.

Norway actively participates in international dialogues on internet governance. Norwegian stakeholders are active participants in various internet governance forums and initiatives at the regional and global levels. Norwegian stakeholders also participate in the European Dialogue on Internet Governance (EuroDIG) events, which bring together stakeholders from the region to discuss digital policy-related issues and challenges. At the global level, Norwegian stakeholders participate in the Internet Governance Forum (IGF).

The Norwegian government also announced its bid to host the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in 2025.

Digital strategies

These multifaceted strategies reflect Norway’s holistic approach to digitalization. Whether through enhancing educational outcomes, transforming public service delivery, or improving the effectiveness of international aid, Norway’s digital policies are tailored to maximise both national and global benefits. Norway stands at the forefront of digital innovation, integrating sophisticated digital strategies across various sectors, including education, public administration, and international development.

Educational Foundations of Digital Literacy

The commitment to digital literacy is deeply embedded in the national education framework, which, since its approval in 2012, has recognised digital competence as a fundamental skill alongside reading, writing, and numeracy. This educational framework ensures that from a young age, Norwegians are equipped with the essential digital skills necessary for navigating the modern world. Norway is one of the rear countries to have dedicated strategy for digital transformation in the higher education sector.

Digital Throughout Life: A National Strategy

In response to the digital divide, Norway has implemented the ‘Digital Throughout Life‘ strategy, which is aimed at increasing digital participation and competence across all demographics. The initiative focuses on preventing digital exclusion by enhancing digital access and competencies, ensuring that digital benefits permeate through various life stages.

The Digital Agenda for Norway

The ‘Digital Agenda for Norway‘ outlines a robust strategy to utilise information and communication technology (ICT) to simplify everyday life and enhance productivity. The agenda emphasises user-centric public services, innovation, digital competence, effective public sector digitization, and stringent data protection and information security. Notably, the strategy recognises ICT as a pivotal growth sector, contributing significantly to Norway’s economic landscape.

The Role of the Norwegian Digitalisation Agency

Established on 1 January 2020, the Norwegian Digitalisation Agency embodies the government’s vision for public sector digitalization. The agency, evolving from the former Agency for Public Management and eGovernment (Difi) and parts of Altinn, plays a crucial role in defining digitalization policies, coordinating cross-organisational digital measures, and developing national digital services. This strategic body ensures that digital initiatives are accessible to all sectors of society and that public services utilise plain language and universal design principles.

Digitalisation for Development: Extending Norway’s Digital Expertise Globally

Norway’s stance on digital innovation extends beyond its borders through the ‘Digitalisation for Development‘ strategy. This international policy is designed to leverage digital technology to boost the effectiveness and reach of Norwegian development aid. The strategy not only aims to foster economic growth and welfare improvement in developing countries but also seeks to optimise the operational aspects of Norway’s development initiatives. By sharing digital knowledge and expertise, Norway helps partner countries build their digital capacities, which in turn supports sustainable development and poverty reduction.


At the heart of Norway’s approach to cybersecurity is its national strategy, which emphasises the creation of a secure, stable, and robust digital landscape. This strategy is rooted in several key principles, including the importance of international cooperation, the need for an integrated security approach, and the promotion of international standards.

An integrated approach to cybersecurity is also a cornerstone of Norway’s strategy. This approach encompasses personal, technological, and organisational security measures, aiming to foster a robust security culture across all sectors of society. Capacity development is another critical focus, with the government working to enhance the capabilities of national institutions and foster international partnerships to improve overall cybersecurity resilience.

Promoting and adopting international cybersecurity standards is a priority for Norway. Key partners in this effort include the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Strengthening cooperation with the EU is also emphasised, particularly through the implementation of the Directive on Security of Network and Information Systems (NIS Directive) and participation in the contractual Public Private Partnership on Cybersecurity (cPPP Cybersecurity).

Norway actively participates in international cybersecurity collaborations, engaging with key forums such as the European Union (EU), United Nations (UN), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Council of Europe. These collaborations are vital for establishing international norms and standards that enhance global cybersecurity.

Norway has also ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, commonly known as the Budapest Convention. This ratification underscores Norway’s commitment to international cooperation in combating cybercrime and establishing legal frameworks to address cyber threats.

In 2017, Norway introduced its International Cyber Strategy during the annual dialogue meeting on international cyber issues with the US, Nordic, and Baltic countries. This strategy outlines Norway’s principles and strategic priorities in international cyber policy, including cybersecurity, innovation and the economy, international cooperation to combat cybercrime, security policy, global internet governance, development, and human rights.

The National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) serves as the central authority for coordinating cybersecurity efforts across various sectors, providing guidance, support, and incident response services to both public and private entities. The Norwegian National Security Authority (NSM) is tasked with protecting national security interests, including critical infrastructure and essential services, overseeing the implementation of cybersecurity measures, and conducting regular assessments to identify and mitigate threats.

The Norwegian government collaborates closely with the private sector, recognising that much of the country’s digital infrastructure is privately owned. This partnership is crucial for sharing threat intelligence and best practices and ensuring the security of supply chains. Public awareness campaigns are also a key component of Norway’s strategy, aiming to improve digital literacy and promote safe online behaviour among citizens.

AI strategies and policies

The AI landscape in Norway is rapidly evolving, with significant investments and strategic initiatives positioning the country as a key player in the field.

Norway has made substantial investments to enhance its data center infrastructure, crucial for supporting AI technologies. The government established NORA (Norwegian Artificial Intelligence Research Consortium) to bolster AI research and education. A notable investment includes 1 billion kroner to advance AI development, making Norway an attractive destination for AI enterprises due to its excellent internet speeds and abundant natural resources.

Events like the AI+ Conference and Nordic AI Summit play a crucial role in fostering AI innovation and collaboration. The AI+ Conference focuses on applied AI, discussing important questions about the application and control of AI technologies, including the implications of the EU’s AI Act. The Nordic AI Summit, held in Oslo, provides a platform for AI engineers, startups, and corporates to explore AI’s transformative potential through hands-on experience and expert insights.

Norway’s proactive stance includes collaborations between private industry, academia, and government agencies. These partnerships aim to drive AI innovation while ensuring ethical standards and societal benefits. The Norwegian Digitalisation Agency and other key players are actively involved in shaping the AI landscape.

According to the AI Readiness Index 2023, Norway ranks 13th, the country is well-positioned to become a leading AI hub in Europe. This is due to its robust infrastructure, strategic investments, and commitment to sustainability. The combination of advanced data centre technologies, strong regulatory support, and active collaboration across sectors creates a solid foundation for Norway’s AI ecosystem.

In 2020, Norway adopted its National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence, which provides a comprehensive framework for AI development. The strategy emphasises ethical principles, advanced research, effective data management, public sector innovation, and a supportive regulatory environment. This framework aims to ensure that AI technologies are developed and used responsibly, fostering innovation while safeguarding societal values. The country aims to align its AI initiatives with the upcoming EU AI Act, ensuring that AI development and deployment are regulated to protect citizens’ rights and promote ethical standards.


General profile

Official name: Kingdom of Norway

Source: Wikipedia

National internet domain: NO

Source: Wikipedia

Area: 385,207 km2

Source: Wikipedia

Capital: Oslo

Source: Wikipedia

Population: 5.457 million

Source: Wikipedia

Population growth: 0.9

Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Source: World Bank Open Data

Life expectancy at birth: 83.16

Total years (2020year) Source: databank.worldbank.org

Rule of law estimate: 1.95

Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Regulatory quality estimate: 1.7

Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Political stability: 1.10

Political Stability and Absence of Violence / Terrorism: measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Economic info

Currency: Norwegian krone

Source: Wikipedia

Unemployment: 3.5

Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP (current US$): 593 billion

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP growth (annual %): 3.0

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP per capita (current US$): 108,729

Source: databank.worldbank.org

Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 5.8

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GNI (current US$): 597 billion

The Gross National Income, GNI, formerly referred to as gross national product (GNP), measures the total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents, at a given period in time, usually a year, expressed in current US dollars using the World Bank Atlas method. GNI comprises GDP plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from non-resident sources. Source: databank.worldbank.org

Ease of doing business score: 82.63

The ease of doing business score benchmarked economies concerning their proximity to the best performance in each area measured by Doing Business for the year 2019. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from0 = lowest performance to 100 = best performance Source: databank.worldbank.org

Digital profile

Internet and social media penetration:

Individuals using the internet: 99 (2021)

Individuals using the internet, total (%) Source: www.itu.int

Social media statistics: 4.49 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Male internet users: 99 (2022)

Male internet users as a % of total male population
Source: www.itu.int

Facebook users: 3.15 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Female internet users: 99 (2022)

Female Internet users as a % of total female population
Source: www.itu.int

Instagram users: 2.60 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Households with internet access at home : 99 (2022)

Households with internet access at home (%)Source: www.itu.int

Linkedin users: 2.60 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Fixed broadband subscriptions: 45.9 (2022)

Total fixed broadband subscriptions (per 100 people) refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s.
Source: www.itu.int

Twitter users: 1.89 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Mobile infrastructure and access:

Mobile ownership: 98.9

Mobile phone ownership as a % of total population (Estimate for 2021)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Mobile Infrastructure: 95.7

Mobile Infrastructure index: High-performance mobile internet coverage availability. It includes parameters such as network coverage, performance, quality of supporting infrastructure and amount of spectrum assigned to mobile network operators (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Male mobile ownership: 88.98 (2022)

Male mobile phone ownership as a % of total male population
Source: www.itu.int

Mobile Affordability: 81.9

Mobile Affordability index : The availability of mobile services and devices at price points that reflect the level of income across a national population. It includes parameters such as mobile tariffs, headset prices, taxation and inequality (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Female mobile ownership: 95.6 (2020)

Female mobile phone ownership as a % of total female population
Source: www.itu.int

Cybersecurity Index: 96.8

Cybersecurity Index (Estimate for 2021): ITU cybersecurity value
Source: www.itu.int

Network performance: 95.6

Network performance index: Quality of mobile services measured by download speed, upload speed and latencies (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Mobile download speeds: 100.0

Mobile download speeds: Average download speed for mobile users (originally in Mbit/s) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Mobile uploads speeds: 100.0

Mobile uploads speeds: average uploads speed for mobile users (originally in Mbit/s) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Mobile Latencies: 86.8

Mobile Latencies: Average latency for mobile users (originally in milliseconds) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Speedtest-Broadband: 151.0

Speedtest-Broadband: The value is expressed in Mbps (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.speedtest.net/global-index

Network coverage: 97.5

Network coverage (% of total population) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

2G Coverage: 99.9

Coverage % of population
Source: www.itu.int

3G Coverage: 99.0

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

4G Coverage: 99.0

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

5G Coverage: 84.0

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Operating system and browser market share estimate:

Operating system market share (%):

Desktop, Tablet & Console Operating System Market Share: Estimate for 2024
Source: https://gs.statcounter.com/

Browser market share (%):

Browser Market Share Worldwide: Estimate for 2022
Source: https://gs.statcounter.com/

Android: 18.7

Chrome: 60.42

Windows: 29.9

Safari: 26.2

iOS: 30.9

Edge: 6.51

OS X: 10.0

Firefox: 2.55

Linux: 8.2

Samsung Internet: 2.2

The UN E-Government Survey 2022:

The UN E-Government Survey is the assessment of the digital government landscape across all UN member states. The E-Government Survey is informed by over two decades of longitudinal research, with a ranking of countries based on the UN E-Government Development Index (EGDI), a combination of primary data (collected and owned by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs) and secondary data from other UN agencies.

E-Government Rank: 17

Nations E-Government Development Index (EGDI), a combination of primary data (collected and owned by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs) and secondary data from other UN agencies. Estimate gives the country's rank.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

E-Government Index: 0.89

The EGDI is a composite measure of three important dimensions of e-government, namely: provision of online services, telecommunication connectivity and human capacity. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

E-Participation Index: 0.69

The E-Participation Index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the United Nations E-Government Survey. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

Online Service Index: 0.8

The online services index was developed by the UN to evaluate the scope and quality of government online services. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-cente

Human Capital Index: 0.95

The Human Capital Index (HCI) quantiï¬_x0081_es the contribution of health and education to the productivity of the next generation of workers. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

Telecommunication Infrastructure Index: 0.91

Telecommunication Infrastructure Index- Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) Composite Indicator that measures the countries' Telecommunication infrastructure readiness to adopt the opportunities offered by Information and Communication Technology as to enhance their competitiveness. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

ICT information:

ICT skills

Information economy indicators

Individuals with basic ICT skills (%): 61 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Share of ICT goods, % of total exports (value) 0.74 (2021)

Source: https://unctadstat.unctad.org/

Individuals with standard ICT skills (%): 62.7 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Share of ICT goods, % of total import (value): 6.72 (2021)

Source: https://unctadstat.unctad.org/

Individuals with advanced ICT skills (%): 12 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Most visited website: vg.no

The survey conducted in 2022 excluded global dominant sites (e.g., YouTube, Facebook, and Google) and search engines (e.g., Yahoo, Baidu, DuckDuckGo, Naver, and Yandex) to level the playing field and discount middle-man visits. Likewise, it did not include adult, betting, illegal streaming/downloading services, and malicious websites.
Source: https://www.hostinger.com/tutorials/the-most-visited-website-in-every-country