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United States of America

The digital economy in the US accounted for approximately $2.41 trillion in current-dollar value added in 2021. This figure highlights the substantial contribution of digital activities to the nation’s GDP, demonstrating the sector’s robust growth even during challenging economic periods. The digital economy’s growth rate significantly outpaced the overall U.S. economy, with real value added growing by 9.8 percent from 2020 to 2021, compared to the overall GDP growth of 5.7 percent in the same period​.

The digital economy’s growth is driven by several key components, including software, telecommunications services, and e-commerce. Software alone accounted for 24 percent of the digital economy’s value added in 2022, making it the largest single contributor. Cloud services, another major component, experienced the fastest growth, with a 232.1 percent increase in value added from 2017 to 2022.

Internet governance

Internet governance in the United States involves a complex mix of governmental, private sector, and civil society organisations working together to manage the development and use of the internet. This governance structure ensures the internet remains open, secure, and interoperable while balancing diverse interests and regulatory requirements. Here are the key aspects of internet governance in the United States:

Key Institutions and Stakeholders

Federal Government Agencies:

  • Federal Communications Commission (FCC): Regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC plays a significant role in policies affecting net neutrality, broadband deployment, and spectrum allocation.
  • National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA): Advises the President on telecommunications and information policy issues, representing the US government in international telecommunications matters.
  • Department of Homeland Security (DHS): Oversees cybersecurity efforts, working to secure critical infrastructure and protect against cyber threats.

Private Sector:

  • Major technology companies such as Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft have a significant influence on internet governance through their control of vast infrastructure, platforms, and services.
  • Internet Service Providers (ISPs) like Comcast, AT&T, and Verizon play a crucial role in providing access and maintaining the infrastructure of the internet.

Civil Society and Advocacy Groups:

    Key Policy Areas

    Net Neutrality:

    • Net neutrality has been a contentious issue in U.S. internet governance. It refers to the principle that ISPs should treat all data on the internet equally and not discriminate or charge differently by user, content, website, or application. The FCC’s stance on net neutrality has shifted with different administrations, reflecting the ongoing debate between advocates of open internet and those favoring deregulation.

    Privacy and Data Protection:

    • While the U.S. lacks a comprehensive federal data protection law, various sector-specific laws (e.g., HIPAA for health data, COPPA for children’s data) and state laws (e.g., California Consumer Privacy Act) govern data privacy. The debate continues on the need for a unified federal privacy framework.

    Broadband Access and Digital Divide:

    • Efforts to expand broadband access and bridge the digital divide are central to U.S. internet governance. Programs like the FCC’s Universal Service Fund and the NTIA’s BroadbandUSA initiative aim to increase connectivity in underserved and rural areas.

    International Engagement:

    • The US actively participates in international forums on internet governance, such as the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), to influence global internet policies and promote an open and interoperable internet.
      Digital strategies

      Digital strategies in the United States encompass a broad range of initiatives aimed at leveraging technology to improve government services, boost economic growth, enhance education, and ensure digital inclusion. These strategies are developed at federal, state, and local levels, and involve collaboration between government agencies, private sector partners, and civil society organizations.

      At the federal level, the Digital Government Strategy, launched in 2012, aims to improve digital services to citizens and businesses. This strategy focuses on providing better access to government information and services, fostering cross-agency collaboration, and enhancing the use of data to drive decision-making. Another significant federal initiative is the Federal Data Strategy, which is part of the President’s Management Agenda. This strategy promotes data governance, access, and usability to improve government operations and services, emphasizing data-driven decision-making and the use of data to address national challenges.

      Digital inclusion is a key aspect of the US digital strategy. The National Broadband Plan, developed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), aims to ensure that every American has access to affordable broadband internet. It includes measures to increase broadband adoption, improve digital literacy, and support broadband deployment in underserved areas. Additionally, the Connecting Minority Communities Pilot Program, administered by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), provides funding to support broadband access and digital inclusion initiatives in historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), tribal colleges, and other minority-serving institutions.

      E-government initiatives are also a crucial part of the US digital strategy. USA.gov, the US government’s official web portal, provides citizens with easy access to federal, state, and local government information and services, aiming to improve the delivery of government services through a user-friendly digital platform. The General Services Administration’s Technology Transformation Services (TTS) works to improve the public’s experience with the government by helping federal agencies build, buy, and share technology that allows them to better serve the public.

      Supporting startups and fostering innovation are central to the US digital strategy. The Small Business Administration (SBA) provides resources and support for startups and small businesses, including access to funding, mentorship programs, and digital tools to help businesses grow and thrive. Many cities have established tech hubs and innovation districts to foster collaboration between startups, established companies, academic institutions, and government agencies, providing resources and support for technology-driven economic growth. Additionally, federal agencies like the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) fund research in various fields, including computer science, engineering, and information technology, aiming to advance knowledge and drive innovation in the digital economy.

      Education and workforce development are critical components of the US digital strategy. Various federal and state programs aim to improve digital literacy among citizens, ensuring they have the skills needed to participate in the digital economy. These programs include training in basic digital skills, cybersecurity awareness, and advanced technical skills. STEM education initiatives, such as those led by the National Science and Technology Council’s Committee on STEM Education (CoSTEM), aim to improve STEM education across the US, focusing on increasing student engagement in STEM fields and preparing the workforce for future technological advancements. Workforce development programs like the TechHire Initiative, launched in 2015, aim to expand local tech sectors by building talent pipelines in communities across the U.S., focusing on training and placing individuals in tech jobs, with an emphasis on underrepresented groups. The U.S. Department of Labor supports apprenticeship programs that provide hands-on training and work experience in various digital and technology fields, helping workers gain the skills needed for high-demand jobs.


      Cybersecurity is a critical component of national security in the United States, encompassing the protection of networks, systems, and data from cyberattacks, unauthorized access, and other digital threats. As the country continues to rely heavily on digital infrastructure for its economy, governance, and daily life, ensuring the security of this infrastructure is paramount.

      Key Components of US Cybersecurity

      Government Agencies and Initiatives

      • Department of Homeland Security (DHS): The DHS, particularly through its Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), plays a central role in protecting the nation’s critical infrastructure from cyber threats.
      • National Security Agency (NSA): The NSA focuses on protecting national security systems and provides cryptographic solutions and guidance to other federal agencies.
      • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): The FBI handles cybercrime investigations and works to prevent and respond to cyberattacks.
      • United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM): This military command is responsible for defending the Department of Defense (DoD) networks and conducting offensive cyber operations when necessary.

      Key Legislation

      Public-Private Partnerships

      National Strategies and Policies

      • National Cyber Strategy of the United States of America (2023): This strategy outlines the country’s approach to securing cyberspace, deterring malicious actors, and improving national resilience to cyber incidents.
      • Executive Order 13800 (2017): This order focuses on strengthening the cybersecurity of federal networks and critical infrastructure, enhancing the protection of the American public’s personal data, and improving the resilience of the internet.
      AI strategies and policies

      The United States is a global leader in the development and application of artificial intelligence (AI). The 2023 Government AI Readiness Index, produced by Oxford Insights, ranks the United States as the top country in terms of AI readiness. The AI landscape in the US is characterized by a robust ecosystem that includes pioneering research institutions, leading technology companies, significant government initiatives, and a strong regulatory framework. This ecosystem fosters innovation and positions the U.S. at the forefront of AI advancements.

      Key Components of the AI Landscape

      1. Research and Development
        • Academic Institutions: Renowned universities such as MIT, Stanford, and Carnegie Mellon are at the cutting edge of AI research, contributing to breakthroughs in machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, and robotics.
        • Government Research: Agencies like DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) and NSF (National Science Foundation) fund and conduct high-impact AI research, focusing on both foundational technologies and practical applications.
      2. Technology Companies
        • Big Tech Leaders: Companies such as Google, Microsoft, Amazon, IBM, and Facebook are leading the development of AI technologies. They invest heavily in AI research and development, producing cutting-edge innovations and deploying AI in various products and services.
        • Startups and Innovation: The US is home to a vibrant startup ecosystem, with numerous AI-focused startups driving innovation in areas such as healthcare, finance, autonomous vehicles, and cybersecurity.
      3. Government Initiatives and Policies
      4. Public-Private Partnerships
        • Collaborations between government agencies, academia, and industry are crucial for advancing AI. Initiatives such as the Partnership on AI bring together stakeholders to address AI’s ethical, social, and economic impacts.
      5. Ethics and Regulation
        • Ethical Frameworks: Organizations like the IEEE and the Partnership on AI develop ethical guidelines to ensure responsible AI development and deployment.
        • Regulatory Approaches: The US government is working on developing regulations that balance innovation with the protection of privacy, security, and civil liberties. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and other regulatory bodies are involved in crafting policies for AI governance.

      General profile

      Official name: United States of America

      Source: Wikipedia

      National internet domain: US

      Source: Wikipedia

      Area: 9,826,675 km2

      Source: Wikipedia

      Capital: Washington, D.C.

      Source: Wikipedia

      Population: 333,3 million

      Source: Wikipedia

      Population growth: 0.4

      Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
      Source: World Bank Open Data

      Life expectancy at birth: 76.33

      Total years (2020year) Source: databank.worldbank.org

      Rule of law estimate: 1.42

      Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
      Source: databank.worldbank.org

      Regulatory quality estimate: 1.24

      Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
      Source: databank.worldbank.org

      Political stability: 0.00

      Political Stability and Absence of Violence / Terrorism: measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
      Source: databank.worldbank.org

      Economic info

      Currency: United States dollar

      Source: Wikipedia

      Unemployment: 3.6

      Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) Source: databank.worldbank.org

      GDP (current US$): 25.44 trillion

      Source: databank.worldbank.org

      GDP growth (annual %): 1.9

      Source: databank.worldbank.org

      GDP per capita (current US$): 76,329

      Source: databank.worldbank.org

      Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 8.0

      Source: databank.worldbank.org

      GNI (current US$): 25.98 billion

      The Gross National Income, GNI, formerly referred to as gross national product (GNP), measures the total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents, at a given period in time, usually a year, expressed in current US dollars using the World Bank Atlas method. GNI comprises GDP plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from non-resident sources. Source: databank.worldbank.org

      Ease of doing business score: 84.0

      The ease of doing business score benchmarked economies concerning their proximity to the best performance in each area measured by Doing Business for the year 2019. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from0 = lowest performance to 100 = best performance Source: databank.worldbank.org

      Digital profile

      Internet and social media penetration:

      Individuals using the internet, total: 97.1 (2022)

      Individuals using the internet, total (%) Source: www.itu.int

      Social media statistics: 239.0 million

      Estimate for 2024
      Source: datareportal.com

      Male internet users: 72.3 (2015)

      Male internet users as a % of total male population
      Source: www.itu.int

      Facebook users: 190.9 million

      Estimate for 2024
      Source: datareportal.com

      Female internet users: 74.9 (2015)

      Female Internet users as a % of total female population
      Source: www.itu.int

      Instagram users: 169.7 million

      Estimate for 2024
      Source: datareportal.com

      Households with internet access at home: 92.5 (2021)

      Households with internet access at home (%) Source: www.itu.int

      Linkedin users: 220.0 million

      Estimate for 2024
      Source: datareportal.com

      Fixed broadband subscriptions: 37.5 (2022)

      Total fixed broadband subscriptions (per 100 people) refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s.
      Source: www.itu.int

      Twitter users: 105.4 million

      Estimate for 2024
      Source: datareportal.com

      Mobile infrastructure and access:

      Mobile ownership: 91.39

      Mobile phone ownership as a % of total population (Estimate for 2022)
      Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

      Mobile Infrastructure: 90.22

      Mobile Infrastructure index: High-performance mobile internet coverage availability. It includes parameters such as network coverage, performance, quality of supporting infrastructure and amount of spectrum assigned to mobile network operators (Estimate for 2022)
      Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

      Male mobile ownership: No data

      Male mobile phone ownership as a % of total male population
      Source: www.itu.int

      Mobile Affordability: 79.69

      Mobile Affordability index : The availability of mobile services and devices at price points that reflect the level of income across a national population. It includes parameters such as mobile tariffs, headset prices, taxation and inequality (Estimate for 2022)
      Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

      Female mobile ownership: 84.2 (2019)

      Female mobile phone ownership as a % of total female population
      Source: www.itu.int

      Cybersecurity Index: 100.0

      Cybersecurity Index (Estimate for 2021): ITU cybersecurity value
      Source: www.itu.int

      Network performance: 83.18

      Network performance index: Quality of mobile services measured by download speed, upload speed and latencies (Estimate for 2022)
      Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

      Mobile download speeds: 100.0

      Mobile download speeds: Average download speed for mobile users (originally in Mbit/s) (Estimate for 2022)
      Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

      Mobile uploads speeds: 64.76

      Mobile uploads speeds: average uploads speed for mobile users (originally in Mbit/s) (Estimate for 2022)
      Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

      Mobile Latencies: 84.78

      Mobile Latencies: Average latency for mobile users (originally in milliseconds) (Estimate for 2022)
      Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

      Speedtest-Broadband: 114.87

      Speedtest-Broadband: The value is expressed in Mbps (Estimate for 2024)
      Source: https://www.speedtest.net/global-index

      Network coverage: 98.92

      Network coverage (% of total population) (Estimate for 2022)
      Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

      2G Coverage: 99.9

      Coverage % of population
      Source: www.itu.int

      3G Coverage: 99.0

      Coverage % of population
      Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

      4G Coverage: 99.0

      Coverage % of population (Estimate for 2021)
      Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

      5G Coverage: 97.38

      Coverage % of population
      Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

      Operating system and browser market share estimate:

      Operating system market share (%):

      Desktop, Tablet & Console Operating System Market Share: Estimate for 2022
      Source: https://gs.statcounter.com/

      Browser market share (%):

      Browser Market Share Worldwide: Estimate for 2022
      Source: https://gs.statcounter.com/

      Android: 24.06

      Chrome: 51.06

      Win10: 22.18

      Safari: 34.52

      iOS: 29.98

      Edge: 6.55

      OS X: 11.34

      Firefox: 3.63

      Win11: 4.67

      Samsung Internet: 2.11

      The UN E-Government Survey 2022:

      The UN E-Government Survey is the assessment of the digital government landscape across all UN member states. The E-Government Survey is informed by over two decades of longitudinal research, with a ranking of countries based on the UN E-Government Development Index (EGDI), a combination of primary data (collected and owned by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs) and secondary data from other UN agencies.

      E-Government Rank: 10

      Nations E-Government Development Index (EGDI), a combination of primary data (collected and owned by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs) and secondary data from other UN agencies. Estimate gives the country's rank.
      Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

      E-Government Index: 0.92

      The EGDI is a composite measure of three important dimensions of e-government, namely: provision of online services, telecommunication connectivity and human capacity. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
      Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

      E-Participation Index: 0.91

      The E-Participation Index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the United Nations E-Government Survey. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
      Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

      Online Service Index: 0.93

      The online services index was developed by the UN to evaluate the scope and quality of government online services. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
      Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-cente

      Human Capital Index: 0.93

      The Human Capital Index (HCI) quantiï¬_x0081_es the contribution of health and education to the productivity of the next generation of workers. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
      Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

      Telecommunication Infrastructure Index: 0.89

      Telecommunication Infrastructure Index- Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) Composite Indicator that measures the countries' Telecommunication infrastructure readiness to adopt the opportunities offered by Information and Communication Technology as to enhance their competitiveness. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
      Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

      ICT information:

      ICT skills

      Information economy indicators

      Individuals with basic ICT skills (%): No data

      Source: www.itu.int

      Share of ICT goods, % of total exports (value) 9.07 (2021)

      Source: https://unctadstat.unctad.org/

      Individuals with standard ICT skills (%): No data

      Source: www.itu.int

      Share of ICT goods, % of total import (value): 14.00 (2021)

      Source: https://unctadstat.unctad.org/

      Individuals with advanced ICT skills (%): No data

      Source: www.itu.int

      Most visited website: amazon.com

      The survey conducted in 2022 excluded global dominant sites (e.g., YouTube, Facebook, and Google) and search engines (e.g., Yahoo, Baidu, DuckDuckGo, Naver, and Yandex) to level the playing field and discount middle-man visits. Likewise, it did not include adult, betting, illegal streaming/downloading services, and malicious websites.
      Source: https://www.hostinger.com/tutorials/the-most-visited-website-in-every-country