Home | Countries | Sweden


Sweden is a leader in the adoption and utilisation of digital technologies across businesses and among individuals. The country boasts a well-developed digital infrastructure and a high rate of internet usage. This robust digital foundation has facilitated the digitalization of numerous public services, with 87% of government services now accessible online. This makes Sweden one of the most advanced countries in Europe in terms of online and mobile accessibility for e-government services.

Internet governance

The Swedish government has established a robust regulatory framework for internet governance. This framework includes laws and regulations that ensure the protection of user data, promote net neutrality, and safeguard freedom of expression online. The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS) is the primary regulatory body overseeing electronic communications and postal services in the country​.

Internet Infrastructure

Sweden boasts one of the most advanced internet infrastructures in the world, with widespread high-speed broadband access. The government has invested heavily in digital infrastructure, ensuring that even remote and rural areas have reliable internet connectivity. This extensive network supports the high rate of internet usage among Swedish citizens and businesses.

Digital Inclusion and Literacy

Digital inclusion is a priority in Sweden’s internet governance strategy. The government implements various programs to enhance digital literacy and ensure all citizens can access and benefit from internet services. Initiatives include educational programs, public internet access points, and targeted support for marginalised groups to bridge the digital divide​​.

Data Protection and Privacy

Sweden places a strong emphasis on data protection and privacy. The country complies with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which provides a comprehensive framework for data protection across the European Union. The Swedish Data Protection Authority (Datainspektionen) oversees the implementation and enforcement of data protection laws​.

Net Neutrality

Sweden is a strong proponent of net neutrality, ensuring that all internet traffic is treated equally without discrimination. This principle is enshrined in Swedish law, reflecting the country’s commitment to maintaining an open and free internet. The regulatory framework supports competition and prevents service providers from blocking or throttling specific content or services​.

Innovation and Research

Sweden actively promotes innovation and research in the field of internet governance. The government collaborates with academic institutions, private sector companies, and international organisations to develop cutting-edge technologies and policies.

Swedish stakeholders are active participants in various internet governance forums and initiatives at the regional and global levels. Swedish stakeholders also participate in the European Dialogue on Internet Governance (EuroDIG) events, which bring together stakeholders from the region to discuss digital policy-related issues and challenges. At the global level, Sweden is a member of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF).

Digital strategies

Sweden is at the forefront of digital innovation, showing a strong commitment to applying new technologies like AI and IoT to drive sustainable growth, productivity, and social development. The country boasts a thriving digital ecosystem, with the ICT industry making a significant contribution to its GDP.

Key Digital Strategies in Sweden

National Digitalisation Strategy for the School System 2023-2027

The National Digitalisation Strategy for the School System 2023-2027 aims to create opportunities for digitalization in education. This strategy seeks to achieve high levels of digital skills for children and students, promote knowledge development, and ensure equal access to technology. It focuses on enhancing digital literacy for everyone, providing equal access to digital tools and resources, and conducting research on the impact of digitalization in education.

Broadband Strategy for Sweden

The Swedish government has set a clear goal of providing high-speed broadband access to all citizens. The Broadband Strategy for Sweden aims to ensure that 98% of households and businesses have access to high-speed broadband by 2025. This ambitious plan is critical for supporting the country’s digital services and ensuring connectivity across all regions, including rural areas.

E-Government Strategy: The ‘Digital First’ Program

Sweden’s e-government strategy, known as the ‘Digital First‘ program, aims to make the country a world leader in digital transformation. The strategy is structured around three focus areas: governance, smart solutions, and infrastructure.

In governance, the strategy focuses on improving whole-of-government governance of open government activities. This includes creating a new unit dedicated to e-government and enhancing frameworks for follow-up and benchmarks. Seven pilot agencies in four sectors are working on initiatives related to open data, data maturity, and open innovation.

For smart solutions, the strategy aims to implement digital innovations across various sectors. This includes smarter planning and building processes, a smarter food chain, and simplified entrepreneurship. These initiatives leverage digital technologies and data to improve public services and enhance citizen engagement.

Regarding infrastructure, the strategy emphasises strengthening digital infrastructure. This includes developing a national digital infrastructure and creating a single agency for digital government. These efforts facilitate the integration of digital technologies across policy areas and enhance the overall digital maturity of the public sector.

The Agency for Digital Government is responsible for coordinating and supporting digitalisation within public administration.


The country’s comprehensive cybersecurity strategy involves robust collaboration between government agencies, private sector entities, and international partners, ensuring a multi-faceted approach to securing its digital landscape.

National Cybersecurity Strategy

Sweden’s national cybersecurity strategy is meticulously designed to protect critical infrastructure and ensure the resilience of essential services. This strategy encompasses comprehensive measures for threat prevention, detection, and response, aiming to bolster the nation’s overall security posture.

Legal and Regulatory Framework

The Swedish government has established a strong legal and regulatory framework to support cybersecurity initiatives. Key components of this framework include adherence to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which protects personal data, and the Network and Information Systems (NIS) Directive, which enhances the security of network and information systems across the EU. These regulations impose stringent requirements for data protection, incident reporting, and risk management, reinforcing Sweden’s commitment to a secure digital environment.

Public-Private Partnerships

Effective cybersecurity in Sweden relies heavily on robust collaboration between the public and private sectors. The government works closely with businesses, industry associations, and technology providers to share information on threats, best practices, and innovative solutions. These partnerships foster a unified defense against cyber threats and help cultivate a pervasive culture of cybersecurity across all sectors.

Incident Response and Management

Sweden has developed advanced mechanisms for incident response and management. The MSB operates the National Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (CERT-SE), which provides critical support and guidance in managing cyber incidents. CERT-SE collaborates with other national and international CERTs to respond to cyber threats efficiently, minimising their impact and ensuring rapid recovery.

International Collaboration

Acknowledging the global nature of cyber threats, Sweden actively engages in international cybersecurity efforts. The country collaborates with the European Union, NATO, and other international organisations to share intelligence, conduct joint exercises, and develop common strategies to counter cyber threats. Sweden’s active participation in these international initiatives enhances its capacity to address cyber risks on a global scale, ensuring a more secure international digital environment. Sweden has also ratified CoE Convention on Cybercrime (Budapest Convention).

AI strategies and policies

The country’s approach is comprehensive, encompassing research, education, ethics, data infrastructure, and industry application. Sweden’s AI strategies and policies are designed to foster innovation, maintain ethical standards, and ensure inclusivity, with a focus on long-term sustainable growth.

National AI Strategy: A Blueprint for Innovation

In 2018, Sweden unveiled its national AI strategy with the ambition of becoming a global leader in AI. This strategy underscores the importance of fostering innovation through collaborative research. The Swedish government funds various AI research projects, encouraging partnerships between universities, research institutes, and private sector companies. One notable initiative is AI Innovation of Sweden, a national center dedicated to applied AI research and innovation.

A critical component of Sweden’s AI strategy is the emphasis on education and skills development. The strategy includes integrating AI education into school curriculums and providing professional training programs to ensure that the workforce is well-prepared for the AI-driven future. This focus on education aims to cultivate a skilled workforce that can contribute to and benefit from AI advancements.

Sweden is committed to the ethical use of AI, promoting transparency, fairness, and respect for privacy. The national strategy includes developing ethical guidelines and frameworks to ensure that AI applications adhere to these principles. By collaborating with international organisations, Sweden ensures its policies align with global standards, fostering trust in AI technologies​.

Access to high-quality data and robust digital infrastructure is vital for AI development. Sweden’s strategy focuses on improving data availability while ensuring data security and privacy. Initiatives aimed at enhancing data sharing across public and private sectors are in place to support AI applications, backed by strong digital infrastructure.

International Collaboration

Understanding the global nature of AI, Sweden actively engages in international collaborations. The country participates in various international AI research networks and contributes to global discussions on AI ethics, standards, and policies. This international engagement ensures that Sweden’s AI policies are aligned with global best practices, enhancing its capability to address AI-related challenges on a global scale.

Key Policies and Initiatives

AI Innovation of Sweden: This national center fosters collaboration among academia, industry, and government to accelerate AI development and application. It focuses on applied research, innovation projects, and knowledge sharing to drive the adoption of AI across different sectors​.

AI4Society: This initiative promotes the ethical and societal aspects of AI. It involves stakeholders from various sectors to develop guidelines ensuring AI technologies are used responsibly and for the societal good​.

Funding and Support Programs: The Swedish government provides significant funding and support for AI research and development through various programs. This includes grants for academic research, support for startups, and incentives for industries to adopt AI technologies, fostering a vibrant AI ecosystem that drives economic growth and societal benefits​.


General profile

Official name: Kingdom of Sweden

Source: Wikipedia

National internet domain: SE

Source: Wikipedia

Area: 528,861 km2

Source: Wikipedia

Capital: Stockholm

Source: Wikipedia

Population: 10.49 million

Source: Wikipedia

Population growth: 0.70

Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Source: World Bank Open Data

Life expectancy at birth: 83.16

Total years (2020year) Source: databank.worldbank.org

Rule of law estimate: 1.73

Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Regulatory quality estimate: 1.68

Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Political stability: 1.03

Political Stability and Absence of Violence / Terrorism: measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5 (Estimate 2021)
Source: databank.worldbank.org

Economic info

Currency: Swedish krona

Source: Wikipedia

Unemployment: 7.7

Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP (current US$): 591 Billion

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP growth (annual %): 2.9

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GDP per capita (current US$): 56,424

Source: databank.worldbank.org

Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 8.4

Source: databank.worldbank.org

GNI (current US$): 613 billion

The Gross National Income, GNI, formerly referred to as gross national product (GNP), measures the total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents, at a given period in time, usually a year, expressed in current US dollars using the World Bank Atlas method. GNI comprises GDP plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from non-resident sources. Source: databank.worldbank.org

Ease of doing business score: 81.99

The ease of doing business score benchmarked economies concerning their proximity to the best performance in each area measured by Doing Business for the year 2019. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from0 = lowest performance to 100 = best performance Source: databank.worldbank.org

Digital profile

Internet and social media penetration:

Individuals using the internet: 95.7 (2023)

Source: Individuals using the internet, total (%) www.itu.int

Social media statistics: 8.53 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Male internet users: 95.8 (2023)

Male internet users as a % of total male population
Source: www.itu.int

Facebook users: 5.65 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Female internet users: 95.6 (2023)

Female Internet users as a % of total female population
Source: www.itu.int

Instagram users: 5.50 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Households with internet access at home: 92.7 (2022)

Source: Households with internet access at home (%) www.itu.int

Linkedin users: 5.20 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Fixed broadband subscriptions: 40.4 (2022)

Total fixed broadband subscriptions (per 100 people) refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s.
Source: www.itu.int

Twitter users: 2.60 million

Estimate for 2024
Source: datareportal.com

Mobile infrastructure and access:

Mobile ownership: 91.4

Mobile phone ownership as a % of total population (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Mobile Infrastructure:87.7

Mobile Infrastructure index: High-performance mobile internet coverage availability. It includes parameters such as network coverage, performance, quality of supporting infrastructure and amount of spectrum assigned to mobile network operators (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Male mobile ownership: 87.4 (2021)

Male mobile phone ownership as a % of total male population
Source: www.itu.int

Mobile Affordability: 76.9

Mobile Affordability index : The availability of mobile services and devices at price points that reflect the level of income across a national population. It includes parameters such as mobile tariffs, headset prices, taxation and inequality (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Female mobile ownership: 87.9 (2021)

Female mobile phone ownership as a % of total female population
Source: www.itu.int

Cybersecurity Index: 94.55

Cybersecurity Index (Estimate for 2021): ITU cybersecurity value
Source: www.itu.int

Network performance: 84.5

Network performance index: Quality of mobile services measured by download speed, upload speed and latencies (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Mobile download speeds: 87.3

Mobile download speeds: Average download speed for mobile users (originally in Mbit/s) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Mobile uploads speeds: 77.8

Mobile uploads speeds: average uploads speed for mobile users (originally in Mbit/s) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Mobile Latencies: 88.5

Mobile Latencies: Average latency for mobile users (originally in milliseconds) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: Ookla's Speedtest Intelligence

Speedtest-Broadband: 101.4

Speedtest-Broadband: The value is expressed in Mbps (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.speedtest.net/global-index

Network coverage: 93.7

Network coverage (% of total population) (Estimate for 2022)
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

2G Coverage: 100.0

Coverage % of population
Source: www.itu.int

3G Coverage: 99.0

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

4G Coverage: 99.0

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

5G Coverage: 45.0

Coverage % of population
Source: https://www.mobileconnectivityindex.com/

Operating system and browser market share estimate:

Operating system market share (%):

Desktop, Tablet & Console Operating System Market Share: Estimate for 2024
Source: https://gs.statcounter.com/

Browser market share (%):

Browser Market Share Worldwide: Estimate for 2024
Source: https://gs.statcounter.com/

Android: 19.7

Chrome: 56.5

Windows: 38.5

Safari: 26.6

iOS: 24.9

Edge: 8.7

OS X: 8.3

Firefox: 2.5

Chrome OS: 6.7

Samsung Internet: 3.3

The UN E-Government Survey 2022:

The UN E-Government Survey is the assessment of the digital government landscape across all UN member states. The E-Government Survey is informed by over two decades of longitudinal research, with a ranking of countries based on the UN E-Government Development Index (EGDI), a combination of primary data (collected and owned by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs) and secondary data from other UN agencies.

E-Government Rank: 5

Nations E-Government Development Index (EGDI), a combination of primary data (collected and owned by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs) and secondary data from other UN agencies. Estimate gives the country's rank.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

E-Government Index: 0.94

The EGDI is a composite measure of three important dimensions of e-government, namely: provision of online services, telecommunication connectivity and human capacity. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

E-Participation Index: 0.73

The E-Participation Index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the United Nations E-Government Survey. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

Online Service Index: 0.9

The online services index was developed by the UN to evaluate the scope and quality of government online services. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-cente

Human Capital Index: 0.96

The Human Capital Index (HCI) quantiï¬_x0081_es the contribution of health and education to the productivity of the next generation of workers. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

Telecommunication Infrastructure Index: 0.96

Telecommunication Infrastructure Index- Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) Composite Indicator that measures the countries' Telecommunication infrastructure readiness to adopt the opportunities offered by Information and Communication Technology as to enhance their competitiveness. Estimate gives the country's score ranging from approximately 0 to 1.
Source: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/en-us/data-center

ICT information:

ICT skills

Information economy indicators

Individuals with basic ICT skills (%): 69.5 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Share of ICT goods, % of total exports (value) 5.93 (2021)

Source: https://unctadstat.unctad.org/

Individuals with standard ICT skills (%): 43.3 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Share of ICT goods, % of total import (value): 9.81 (2021)

Source: https://unctadstat.unctad.org/

Individuals with advanced ICT skills (%): 9.4 (2021)

Source: www.itu.int

Most visited website: wikipedia.org

The survey conducted in 2022 excluded global dominant sites (e.g., YouTube, Facebook, and Google) and search engines (e.g., Yahoo, Baidu, DuckDuckGo, Naver, and Yandex) to level the playing field and discount middle-man visits. Likewise, it did not include adult, betting, illegal streaming/downloading services, and malicious websites.
Source: https://www.hostinger.com/tutorials/the-most-visited-website-in-every-country